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They also provided a planning context within which the family plan ning program fit nicely spasms in lower back effective mestinon 60mg. The emphasis was on centralized planning with responsibil ity for action largely vested in the hands of the national government muscle relaxant m 751 discount mestinon 60mg with visa. The proportion of the popula tion that lived in urban areas rose to spasms hands fingers cheap 60 mg mestinon with mastercard around 16 percent by 1980, a moderately rapid rate of urban growth, but still a comparatively low level of urbanization. Because Kenya was a mainly agricultural country, the issue of access to land had been on the public agenda, among both Europeans and Africans, since at least the 1920s, and was widely seen as becoming increasingly serious. Two crucially important policy initiatives took up the issue of land tenure in the 1960s and 1970s. This program had its origins in the colonial period (Leys 1974; Maloba 1993), with the goal of establishing a class of small proprietors. It gained consider able impetus in the regions members of the Kikuyu tribe inhabited following the end of compulsory villagization. Consolidation and registration then became the official policy goal for all rural landholdings with the aim of converting agricultural land from the traditional system of lineage-based landholding to individual household ownership. The second major initiative was the buying out of some of the estates owned by white settlers (using funds provided by the British government) and divid ing their lands, plus some state-owned lands, for settlement by African smallholders, who were given title to their smallholdings if they settled them and took steps to develop them. This was something of a revolutionary process, as ownership and leasehold of land in these highly fertile areas had been restricted to whites during the colonial period. Along with registering their titles to the land, the new proprietors were encouraged to produce cash crops, including coffee, tea, pyrethrum, and a vari ety of other more valuable crops. This also was something of a revolutionary process: during the colonial era, African farmers had been prohibited from growing or mar keting cash crops such as coffee. Both initiatives provided economic opportunities that, in turn, absorbed some additional numbers of the growing population. They certainly made a net positive contribution to the economic well-being of those African farmers who were able to benefit from them. Prior to the time when African farmers were permitted to produce and market cash crops, the large-scale commercial producers (settlers or multinational corporations) expressed concern that African smallholders would be incapable of meeting the high quality standards that brought premium prices for Kenyan coffee on the world mar ket. However, once the African producers entered the market, their product was shown to be of excellent quality. The ability of the African smallholders to meet the standards set by international commercial producers provided reassurance for all concerned. In the first place, observers noted that implementation of the resettlement scheme had in some cases led to rising tribal competition for resettlement lands. The demand was far greater than available supply, which meant that a choice had be made among the tribal applicants. Second, as much of the land involved in the reset tlement process was sold, those Africans who could not secure sufficient credit or did not have enough savings to buy it were at greater risk of being left landless. Finally, titles to land, whether acquired through resettlement or through consolidation and registration, were almost inevitably issued in the name of a male householder, a practice that seriously disadvantaged women, who lived on the land and were the chief source of farm labor. Thus, if land reform is a leading precondition for fertility decline, as McNicoll (2006) recently observed, Kenya made an important start in that direction during the 1960s and 1970s. Like nearly every other country in Sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya was and remains a multiethnic society. As mentioned earlier, around the time of independence, Kenya had a small but economically powerful minority of Europeans, Asians (almost all from India), and Arabs. The largest tribe was the Kikuyu, who accounted for just over 20 percent of the total population. They were followed in size by the Luhya and the Luo (around 13 percent each); the Kamba and the Kalenjin (about 11 percent each); and the Meru, Embu, and Gusii (around 7 percent each), plus a large number of smaller groups. An important consequence of the ethnic heterogeneity was the resulting linguistic heterogeneity. Each tribe spoke its own language, and the languages were to a greater or lesser extent mutually incomprehensible. Indeed, the African languages of Kenya fall into three different linguistic families, which in some cases are as structurally and historically unrelated as, say, English and Arabic.
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However spasms around the heart trusted 60mg mestinon, the same eligibility rules that apply to spasms behind knee generic 60mg mestinon otc all other claimants also apply to muscle relaxer 86 62 best mestinon 60mg pregnant claimants: they must be available for work, they must be physically able to work and they must be looking for work. You do not have to tell us about your pregnancy unless it afects your ability to work. If you are unable to work because of health reasons related to pregnancy or childbirth, you are not eligible to claim Unemployment Insurance benefts for those days or weeks. You cannot claim benefts for the period of time you are in the hospital and are unable to work. Before you can resume receiving benefts, we may request medical clearance that states you are able to work after being hospitalized (this would also be the case if you were hospitalized for any other reason). Sometimes an employer tells the Telephone Claims Center* that a claimant quit, took a leave of absence or was fred because of pregnancy. However, if you left your last job voluntarily, even though you were physically able to continue working, you may not be eligible for benefts. An overpayment occurs when you receive Unemployment Insurance benefts that you were not entitled to. This could occur for a number of reasons, for example: you made a mistake when claiming weekly benefts, you were not ready, willing and able to work, you did not complete the required work search activities for a week or weeks, or you knowingly gave us false or misleading information when fling a claim or claiming weekly benefts. Willful misrepresentation occurs when you knowingly and purposely make a false statement in order to get Unemployment Insurance benefts. If you willfully make a false statement or representation to get benefts, you may: Be assessed forfeit days,? which are benefts that you claim in the future that you forfeit or lose as a penalty (see Glossary), and. Be charged $100 or a 15 percent (whichever is higher) monetary penalty on the full amount of the overpaid benefts. If you do not pay back an overpayment of benefts that you received fraudulently, the Department of Labor may obtain a judgment against you to collect the overpayment(s). Failure to repay any benefts that you received because you withheld information or gave false information to the Department of Labor may result in the Department of Labor taking legal action to fle a judgment against you. Once entered, a judgment is good and can be used against you for 20 years and your money, including a portion of your paycheck and/or bank account, may be taken. Also, a judgment will hurt your credit score and can afect your ability to rent a home, fnd a job or take out a loan. These include future Unemployment Insurance benefts, contract payments, state tax refunds and other payments. If you cannot repay the entire overpayment, you can request a payment plan by calling 800-533-6600. If you have been overpaid, you will receive a written Notice of Determination in the mail. Explain how the overpayment happened and why it has to be repaid If you receive an overpayment determination, you should follow the repayment instructions on the notice. If you disagree with the overpayment determination, you have the right to request a hearing. If you request a hearing, collection activity on the overpayment will be suspended until the hearing is complete and a decision is issued. Overpayments made by other state or federal programs If you received benefts that you should not have received from another state or federal program, the Department of Labor must deduct repayment from your Unemployment Insurance benefts. In such an event you will need proof of work history to dispute an allegation of fraud. To prepare yourself for such a possibility, make sure you save your schedule, time records and paystubs. When you get a job, you must report all days worked when claiming weekly benefts, even if you have not yet been paid. You have not received 104 days of benefts (this equals 26 full weeks of benefts), and. It has been at least one week since the last week you claimed benefts Then you may simply start claiming benefts again. If you do not know when your beneft year ends, you can fnd this date on your Monetary Beneft Determination or in your online account at labor.
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Historically muscle relaxant for children purchase mestinon from india, however spasms right upper quadrant quality 60mg mestinon, contraceptives and information on contraception were considered obscene material and banned under federal and many state statutes muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine high purchase mestinon in india. At the federal level, the 1873 Comstock Act outlawed the interstate mailing, shipping, or importation of articles, drugs, medicines, or printed materials considered obscenities,? a term that applied to anything used for the prevention of conception? (18 U. The Comstock Act banned any book, pamphlet, paper, writing, advertisement, cir cular, print, picture, drawing or other representation, fgure, or image on or of paper or other material, or any cast, instrument, or other article of an immoral nature, or any drug or medi cine, or any article whatever for the prevention of conception? (Tone 1996, p. The Birth Control Movement Margaret Sanger is typically credited with beginning the U. Second Circuit Court of Appeals to strike down portions of the federal Comstock law in U. The following year the American Medical Association reversed its long standing opposition to birth control. Despite the taboos surrounding birth control, early public opinion polls show strong support for the movement (see the online data appendix for details on surveys). Starting in 1938, Gallup felded a new question about whether respondents would like to see a gov ernment agency furnish birth control information to married people who want it. One large-scale survey of physicians about their attitudes regarding birth control revealed that only 10 percent of medical school graduates before 1920 had received any training regarding contraception (Guttmacher 1947). Sanger was indicted for nine violations of the New York state Comstock law for her use of the words birth control? in her journal the Woman Rebel. After the charges were dropped, she launched a new journal in 1916 provocatively called the Birth Control Review, in conjunction with the opening of a birth control clinic? in Brooklyn, New York. This clinic was shut down by the vice squad the next day, but Sanger managed to open her frst legal? birth control clinic in 1923, claiming to use birth control for medical purposes. Online appendixes and replication fles for the papers in this volume may be accessed on the Brookings Papers website, Words when only contraception? is used; bigrams when more than two words are used. And in 1959, 73 percent of Gallup respondents said that birth control information should be available to anyone who wants it. Public support for government-provided birth control information increased at the same time that the supply of condoms and diaphragms increased. The full question reads, In some places in the United States it is not legal to supply birth control information. How do you feel about this?do you think birth control informa tion should be available to anyone who wants it, or not? Survey responses regarding Support for the birth Control movement and Family Planning Programs, 1936?2012 Percent answering yes? 88. One study of the diaphragm industry in 1938 found the average physician markup to be substantial (Tone 2001, p. In states prohibiting the sale of contraceptives under their Comstock statutes, black market distribution channels became well established. Couples could often obtain diaphragms and condoms through the mail, or from gas station clerks or truck stop vending machines (Tone 2000, 2001, Garrow 1994). Data from the Growth of American Families survey show that, in 1955, 47 percent of ever-married women aged 18 to 29 had at some time used a barrier method like the diaphragm or a condom, and rates of ever use? (not current use) did not differ for women living in states with Comstock statutes (Bailey 2010, Freedman, Campbell, and Whelpton undated). Her strategy also increased the momentum of the family planning movement that would ultimately lead policy makers to subsidize contraceptives for families with fewer resources. The Introduction of the Pill and Restrictions on the Sale of Contraceptives Enovid, the frst oral contraceptive, was initially introduced for the regulation of menses in 1957. The new medication, which soon became known as the Pill,? was met with extraordinary immediate enthusiasm? (Weinberg 1968, p. But enthusiasm turned into contro versy as couples realized that state Comstock laws prohibited physicians from prescribing the Pill and pharmacists from selling it. State obscenity statutes of the Comstock era varied in their language relating to obscenity and, consequently, in their implications for access to the Pill. The Pill was available only from physicians and pharmacists, who tended to comply with state laws because violating them could jeopardize their licenses and livelihoods. Newly introduced and still under patent, Enovid would have been hard to obtain through the usual black market channels,10 and women could not verify beforehand the effectiveness of illicitly obtained pills?much less their safety. How do you feel about this?do you think birth control information should be available to anyone who wants it, or not?