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Microglia Microglia are cells whose job it is to allergy medicine gastritis discount rhinocort amex make sure that no foreign invader protein gets into the nervous system allergy symptoms nasal order 100mcg rhinocort amex. They become mobile and literally start eating up invading cells (and allergy forecast park city utah order cheapest rhinocort, therefore, are phagocytes). Microglia are fundamental to the removal of dead neurons, proliferating and then removing the dead cells (Streit and Kincaid-Colton, 1995). Cytokines are intercellular mediators that infuence and sometimes regulate immune responses and even the production of other cytokines. Monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells all produce cytokines (Table 1. It is caused by secretion of hormones, such as cortisol, which have the capability to suppress the active immune response. It incites slow-wave sleep, inhibits food intake, and mediates fever (Krueger et al. This was groundbreaking information—information that immunologists and endocrinologists found astounding, as it did not ft conventional knowledge. However, it had me dancing with glee because it was solid medical evidence of what I (as well as colleagues) had intuited about systems interaction. This was the frst example of physiological systems truly interacting with one another. They are crucial to the body’s natural resistance and are instigated early in host defense. Problems occur when the cells become weak and incapable of destroying tumor cells. A variety of stress-related fac tors and diseases can reduce their activity level. In one study, 10 patients with meta static cancer who were given both relaxation and imagery training showed increased immune response (Gruber et al. In another study, 45 subjects aged 60 to 88 were given relaxation training and demonstrated increased ability to destroy her pes cells (Kiecolt-Glaser et al. The effect did not appear with subjects who were assigned to social contact groups instead of the relaxation group. So, what we are seeing here is that the immune system is capable of getting stronger simply by the action of our thoughts. Th e aC q u i r e d im m u n e sy s The m Acquired immunity is more specifc and occurs when an antigen enters the body. There are two types of lymphocytes or immune cells involved in acquired immu nity: B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. The cell-mediated immune response, which defends against virus, fungi, protozoa, cancerous cells, tissue transplants 38 the Scientifc Basis of Integrative Medicine Brain microglial cell? The humoral immune response, which defends against bacteria and toxins, involves the secretion of anti bodies by plasma cells that are derived from B lymphocytes. During fetal develop ment, the cells that migrate to the thymus to mature are the T lymphocytes, whereas B lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow (B for bone and T for thymus, accord ing to their sites of maturity). In spite of the reduction in size in the thymus during puberty, T lymphocytes continue to develop in the thymus throughout life. Both T and B lymphocytes develop receptors specifc to each type of antigen encountered and can retain a memory for them. The process of maturation of T lymphocytes to functional cells is a complex, hormonally guided process of rigorous selection (Vacchio et al. The thymus gland is the main regulator and the schooling site for T lymphocytes; this is referred to as thymic edu cation. After maturing in the thymus, T lymphocytes enter the circulation and are distributed throughout the lymphatic system, but are found most abundantly in the lymph nodes. The T lymphocyte is the most prevalent lymphocyte, accounting for approximately 70 to 80% of lymphocytes circulating in the body. Cytotoxic T cells, which are capable of destroying virus-infected or foreign cells. They look for their target antigen and, like smart bombs, they blast a hole in the cell membrane. Helper T cells, which prepare the antigen so that it is easier for the B cells to destroy them.


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Cereals and their products are a major source of protein in the Indian dietary (Figure 6 allergy medicine nasonex 100mcg rhinocort for sale. Cereals and pulses allergy forecast abilene tx purchase rhinocort line, when cooked in water allergy forecast jacksonville florida order discount rhinocort, supply only one-third or less of the protein present in the raw foods, as these foods absorb at least two times their weight of water. Therefore, there is likely to be very little decrease in the amount of protein supplied by these foods when cooked. Another aspect of evaluating the foods as sources of protein is the quantity of food that is normally consumed and the frequency of the use of the food. In India, cereals are consumed in large quantities and are included in almost all the meals. Therefore, these contribute a large part of the day’s need for protein in the Indian dietary. Secondly, pulses are included in most of the meals, along with the cereals, which results in a high quality protein in the diet. Milk is one animal food, which is accepted and included in menus for feast as well as fast. Thus cereals, pulses, milk and milk products contribute most of the protein in the Indian dietary. Dry, salted or smoked fish and meat are inexpensive concentrated sources of protein. Proteins and Amino Acids 6363636363 Eggs are included in one meal of the day by those who accept them. Please remember that the importance of any food as a source of protein depends on how often and how much of it is consumed. It may be observed that the concentration of protein in most vegetables and fruits is small. Therefore, these may not be counted to supply more than 10 per cent of the day’s intake. Though the quantity supplied may be small, these proteins do enhance the quality of protein in the diet. It is known that if the kinds and amounts of amino acids in the food proteins in a meal are in keeping with the body’s need, the protein mix is efficiently utilised. Thus when cereals and pulses are included in the same meal, the essential amino acid content of the two together is more in keeping with the body’s needs than that of each of these taken singly. Any additional foods such as curd (buttermilk) and vegetables or fish/meat, which may be included in the meal may help improve the quality of the protein by virtue of the essential amino acids they supply. Thus including two or more sources of protein in the menu for each meal helps to improve the quality of protein and its utilisation. In the stomach, protein is hydrolysed by the enzymes with the help of hydrochloric acid into peptides or amino acids. This process continues in both the duodenum and the small intestine, where the pancreatic and intestinal enzymes complete the hydrolysis by converting almost all the protein into amino acids. It is reported that approximately 92 per cent of the dietary protein is digested from a mixed diet. Proteins of plant origin, especially those bound with cellulose are digested less then those of animal origin. The amino acids thus formed are absorbed either by the stomach wall, the intestinal walls or by the colon. After passing through the walls of the digestive tract, the amino acids are picked up by the circulating blood stream and transported to the liver and to the various body tissues. For the synthesis of proteins in the body, both essential and non-essential amino acids must be available in adequate amounts. Non-essential amino acids can be formed in the body by the combination of essential amino acid groups with metabolic products of carbohydrates and fats by a process known as transamination. The nitrogenous by products, if not utilised, are excreted in urine as urea, uric acid and creatinine.

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Recommended Dietary Allowances the fat requirement is based on two factors allergy symptoms mouth generic rhinocort 100mcg visa, namely to allergy testing price discount rhinocort 100mcg on-line meet energy and the essential fatty acids needs allergy and asthma generic 100mcg rhinocort with amex. A minimum of 5 per cent of total energy needs to be provided as visible fat in the diet. A higher, level of intake of 20 g/day is desirable to provide energy density and palatability for normal adults. It is desirable that an upper limit of 20 g/day of fat intake for adults and 25 g/day for young children be followed, in view of the possible complications resulting from excessive intake of fat. However, in order to meet the essential fatty acid needs, the diet should contain at least 10 g of vegetable oil, which is a good source of linoleic acid. Diet and Heart Ailments Fat is essential for our health, but too much of it can lead to ill health. A section of Indians have a high intake of fat, a large part of it is saturated fats (milk sweets, eggs and other flesh foods), and a very sedentary lifestyle. Their energy intake in excess of needs leads to obesity and an unacceptable blood lipid profile. If unchecked, there is deposition of fatty material with formation of plaques in the arteries, which disturbs the movement of oxygen and nutrients. It leads to a variety of heart ailments, such as atherosclerosis, high blood pressure and others. There are a number of factors associated with susceptibility to heart ailments that can be controlled to a great extent. These include elevation of plasma lipid levels, obesity, physical inactivity and heavy smoking. For instance, it moves it to your liver when it needs it, to your muscles when you are exercising or to your waistline when you are not. In one study, healthy, normal weight volunteers were placed on either an ultralean 10 per cent fat diet or a rich 40 per cent fat diet. Each volunteer ate the number of calories required to maintain his/her body weight. They found that the volunteers on high-fat diet were manufacturing little or no fat. Sensing that a fat famine was under way, their bodies had cranked up the machinery that converts carbohydrates into fat, one of the built-in mechanisms that permits humans to survive in lean times. Research findings suggest that meal patterns may influence the blood lipid levels. Thus it is possible for us to prevent disabling heart disease and ensure the health of our heart. It accounts for about a sixth of the live body weight and a third of it is found in the muscles, a fifth in the bones and cartilage, a tenth in the skin and the remainder in other tissues and body fluids. There are thousands of different specific proteins in the body, each having a unique structure and function. For this reason, the word protein implies not one but a large group of complex compounds. They are essential to life because vital parts of the nucleus and protoplasts of every cell are proteins. In addition, proteins contain about 16 per cent nitrogen, which is their unique feature and distinguishes them from carbohydrates and fats. Proteins are more complex than fats and carbohydrates, as the size of the molecule is large and there is a great variation in the units from which it is formed. Man uses plant foods as also animal foods (milk and meat) to meet his protein needs. Nitrogen is returned to the soil through degradation of products of animal metabolism, excretion of nitrogen compounds in urine and faeces, and decomposition of animal body at death, to complete the natural nitrogen cycle. Structure and Classification All proteins in our body and food are built from basic units or compounds known as amino acids. Amino acids combine to form proteins by means of a peptide bond, which joins a carboxylic carbon of one amino acid with nitrogen of another. The proteins are amphoteric in nature due to the presence of a free acid and a free amino group in their molecule.


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